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Betrayal Trauma Recovery: Steps to Healing and Rebuilding Trust

Betrayal trauma occurs when someone we depend on for emotional support and security violates our trust in a significant way. This breach can profoundly affect one’s mental and emotional well-being. Recognizing the steps to recovery and understanding the therapeutic approaches can pave the way for healing and rebuilding trust.

Understanding Betrayal Trauma

Betrayal trauma is aroused within relationships of the deepest trust, which hold the promise of emotional safety. This kind of trauma is particularly deep because it involves a big violation of trust by a person playing an integral role in one’s emotional life. For instance, such trauma can derive from infidelity, financial deception, or emotional manipulation by a partner, family member, or close friend.

The latter trauma is undergirded by a cognitive dissonance that ensues when the betrayed has to resolve how the relationship could be safe on one hand and yet have been betrayed. The psychological effects experienced are quite complex and wide-ranging from cognitive to emotional and even behavioral responses. They could have intrusive thoughts about the betrayal, be hyper-vigilant in other relationships, or feel vulnerable overall.

Trauma from betrayal often disrupts a person’s belief system regarding the world and others. It can lead one to what psychologists call shattered assumptions: a deep, even existential questioning by the individual of their belief in trust, fairness, and personal security that used to guide the expectations and interaction of the person toward others.

The Neurobiology of Betrayal Trauma

Betrayal trauma has a profound impact on the brain and nervous system. The amygdala, which is responsible for processing emotions and detecting threats, can become hyperactivated in response to the trauma. This can lead to heightened anxiety, fear, and hypervigilance. The hippocampus, which plays a role in memory formation, can be affected by chronic stress, leading to difficulties in processing and integrating traumatic memories. The prefrontal cortex, which is involved in decision-making and emotional regulation, may also be impacted, leading to challenges in regulating emotions and making healthy choices in relationships.

Types of Betrayal Trauma

Betrayal trauma can vary and may take on complications such as those identified below, with specific dynamics and consequences, which can help to understand and tackle the challenges:

  • Infidelity: This type involves a partner engaging in an emotional or physical relationship outside the committed relationship. The discovery of infidelity often leads to a cascade of trauma responses including shock, denial, obsessive thoughts about the affair, and intense scrutiny of one’s own actions and worth.
  • Financial deception: This involves an act like hiding the debt, misrepresenting the financial assets or earnings, or making financial decisions without the other’s authority. This is betrayal in the sense that financial stability is denied to the other party, and therefore, transparency and partnership in the financial aspect are removed.
  • Emotional betrayal: is a consistent undermining of one’s partner through manipulation, persistent lying, or withholding of affection for some wrong. Emotional betrayal may not be as visible as the rest, but it may be even more hurting and might lead to a long-term breakdown of emotional intimacy in the relationship.
  • Social betrayal: This describes the damaging of someone’s social standing through rumors, gossiping, or degrading the person in public. This act might affect a person and his or her image in the long run. 
  • Professional betrayal: is the abuse of trust in a professional or business situation. For example, one would commit this act by stealing ideas from a colleague, undercutting the person’s effort, or sabotaging another colleague’s effort. In a way, it does not just affect the career prospect of the person but also professional relationships and the individual’s self-confidence.

Attachment and Betrayal Trauma

Attachment theory provides a useful framework for understanding how early experiences with caregivers shape our expectations and behaviors in adult relationships. Individuals with secure attachment styles, characterized by a positive view of self and others, may be more resilient in the face of betrayal trauma. They may have a greater capacity for emotional regulation and be more likely to seek support and engage in healthy coping strategies.

On the other hand, individuals with insecure attachment styles (anxious, avoidant, or disorganized) may be more vulnerable to the negative impacts of betrayal trauma. They may struggle with trust, have difficulty regulating emotions, and engage in unhealthy coping mechanisms such as substance abuse or self-harm.

The Impact of Betrayal Trauma on Mental Health

Betrayal trauma can have a profound impact on mental health, leading to a range of emotional and cognitive symptoms. These may include intense feelings of anger, sadness, and confusion, as well as intrusive thoughts and obsessive rumination about the betrayal. Individuals may experience anxiety, depression, and even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to the trauma.

Betrayal trauma can also shatter one’s sense of self and identity. The betrayal can lead to feelings of shame, self-doubt, and worthlessness, as well as a fragmented sense of self. Individuals may question their own judgment, competence, and even their perception of reality in the aftermath of the betrayal.

The Healing Process

Healing from betrayal trauma is always an intentional, and at times arduous process, because it involves going through many of the necessary steps for each individual involved:

  • Acceptance and Validation: The first step towards the healing process is coming to terms with the fact that betrayal has occurred; thus, the involved parties should try to validate the feelings that come along. This could take the form of identifying and validating emotions like being angry, sad, or confused, which are normal reactions to betrayal.
  • Understand the Context: It can be very important to look deeper into the context and dynamics of the betrayal. It could mean understanding why the betrayer did what they did, and perhaps even identifying red flags or patterns that could have been missed. This stage does not serve to justify the behavior; it only helps in getting a clearer view of the whole scenario for emotional processing.
  • Emotional Expression and Processing: Create safe spaces for emotional expression. This can be through therapy, support groups, or even expressive practices like journaling or art. The goal is to provide a space where the person can discharge pent-up feelings in a constructive way, not through bottling them.
  • Setting of Boundaries: After betrayal has occurred, a reassessment of boundaries and setting up new ones is a very important task. It may also be in terms of determining the future of the relationship with the betrayer in terms of what kind of further interaction is permissible between the two. These are very important in protecting oneself against more emotional harm and gaining some control in life.
  • Self-care: This stands as the base of the healing process. It includes the care of oneself physically, like sleep and nutrition; emotionally, through activities that are enjoyable; and mentally, through meditation or mindfulness exercises.
  • Seeking Support: Building or relying on a support network could bring comfort by giving advice, or the ability to share the feelings about the event with another person. Support from friends, family, or even a therapist may lead to a reduction in a person’s sense of isolation and allow one to get another angle regarding the situation.
  • Rebuilding Trust: This is one of the very last stages of healing, in which victims begin to allow new relationships or cautiously grant second chances to existing ones, always with new boundaries in place. Others regain trust through consistent, reassuring acts.
  • Forgiveness and Letting Go: For some, but not all, forgiveness is important in the healing process. In this context, the forgiveness means letting go of what resentment gives power to—not the wrongs committed or the perpetrator.

Understanding Recovery from Betrayal Trauma Through an Attachment Lens

Attachment theory, which provides a powerful framework for understanding the impact of betrayal trauma on relationships. According to attachment theory, we all have an innate need for emotional connection and security in our relationships. When our attachment figures, such as partners or family members, violate our trust, it can shatter our sense of safety and security, leading to intense emotional distress and relationship distress.

Betrayal trauma is an attachment injury, a term coined by Dr. Sue Johnson to describe a specific incident or series of incidents that create a rupture in the attachment bond. Attachment injuries can leave the injured partner feeling abandoned, rejected, and alone, and can create a cycle of negative interactions that further erode the relationship.

Forgiveness and accountability are key components of the healing process in the aftermath of betrayal trauma. Forgiveness is a process of letting go of resentment and blame, and of creating a new narrative of the relationship that acknowledges the pain of the betrayal while also making space for renewed connection and trust. Accountability, on the other hand, involves taking responsibility for one’s actions and making amends for the harm caused. 

With the support of a skilled therapist and a shared vision for the future, couples can emerge from the pain of betrayal trauma stronger, more resilient, and more deeply connected than ever before.

Therapeutic Approaches to Recovery

Couples therapy, particularly approaches like EFT and PACT, can be invaluable in the healing process after a betrayal. A skilled therapist can provide a safe, supportive space for the couple to process their emotions, develop new communication skills, and rebuild their emotional bond.

EFT is a structured, short-term approach that focuses on identifying and changing negative interaction patterns, accessing and expressing primary emotions, and strengthening the attachment bond. PACT incorporates principles from attachment theory, neuroscience, and arousal regulation to help couples develop secure functioning and navigate the challenges of relationships.

Other Therapeutic Approaches In addition to EFT and PACT, several other therapeutic approaches can be helpful in the healing process after a betrayal:

  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT can help individuals identify and challenge negative thought patterns and beliefs related to betrayal, such as self-blame or catastrophizing. By developing more balanced and realistic thinking patterns, individuals can reduce emotional distress and improve coping skills.
  • Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Mindfulness practices, such as meditation and deep breathing, can help individuals regulate their emotional responses, reduce stress and anxiety, and develop a greater sense of self-awareness and self-compassion. Couples can also practice mindfulness together to enhance their emotional connection and resilience.
  • Trauma-Focused Therapies: Approaches like Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) can be helpful for individuals experiencing symptoms of PTSD related to betrayal. These therapies focus on processing traumatic memories and developing new coping skills to reduce the impact of the trauma.
  • Narrative Therapy: Narrative therapy can help couples re-author their story of the betrayal and develop a new, more empowering narrative for their relationship. By externalizing the problem and focusing on their strengths and resilience, couples can begin to see themselves and their relationship in a new light.

Ultimately, the choice of therapeutic approach will depend on the unique needs and preferences of the couple, as well as the expertise of the therapist. Many therapists may integrate elements of different approaches to create a tailored treatment plan for each couple.

Sources

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21987504

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/casp.2738

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16172083

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181836